blob: 8892f5be756dfa8a0a3651547fa1ce42e51b69a9 [file] [log] [blame]
.. _`captures`:
Capturing of the stdout/stderr output
Default stdout/stderr/stdin capturing behaviour
During test execution any output sent to ``stdout`` and ``stderr`` is
captured. If a test or a setup method fails its according captured
output will usually be shown along with the failure traceback.
In addition, ``stdin`` is set to a "null" object which will
fail on attempts to read from it because it is rarely desired
to wait for interactive input when running automated tests.
By default capturing is done by intercepting writes to low level
file descriptors. This allows to capture output from simple
print statements as well as output from a subprocess started by
a test.
Setting capturing methods or disabling capturing
There are two ways in which ``pytest`` can perform capturing:
* file descriptor (FD) level capturing (default): All writes going to the
operating system file descriptors 1 and 2 will be captured.
* ``sys`` level capturing: Only writes to Python files ``sys.stdout``
and ``sys.stderr`` will be captured. No capturing of writes to
filedescriptors is performed.
.. _`disable capturing`:
You can influence output capturing mechanisms from the command line::
py.test -s # disable all capturing
py.test --capture=sys # replace sys.stdout/stderr with in-mem files
py.test --capture=fd # also point filedescriptors 1 and 2 to temp file
.. _printdebugging:
Using print statements for debugging
One primary benefit of the default capturing of stdout/stderr output
is that you can use print statements for debugging::
# content of
def setup_function(function):
print ("setting up %s" % function)
def test_func1():
assert True
def test_func2():
assert False
and running this module will show you precisely the output
of the failing function and hide the other one::
$ py.test
======= test session starts ========
platform linux -- Python 3.4.0, pytest-2.9.1, py-1.4.31, pluggy-0.3.1
rootdir: $REGENDOC_TMPDIR, inifile:
collected 2 items .F
======= FAILURES ========
_______ test_func2 ________
def test_func2():
> assert False
E assert False AssertionError
-------------------------- Captured stdout setup ---------------------------
setting up <function test_func2 at 0xdeadbeef>
======= 1 failed, 1 passed in 0.12 seconds ========
Accessing captured output from a test function
The ``capsys`` and ``capfd`` fixtures allow to access stdout/stderr
output created during test execution. Here is an example test function
that performs some output related checks:
.. code-block:: python
def test_myoutput(capsys): # or use "capfd" for fd-level
print ("hello")
out, err = capsys.readouterr()
assert out == "hello\n"
assert err == "world\n"
print "next"
out, err = capsys.readouterr()
assert out == "next\n"
The ``readouterr()`` call snapshots the output so far -
and capturing will be continued. After the test
function finishes the original streams will
be restored. Using ``capsys`` this way frees your
test from having to care about setting/resetting
output streams and also interacts well with pytest's
own per-test capturing.
If you want to capture on filedescriptor level you can use
the ``capfd`` function argument which offers the exact
same interface but allows to also capture output from
libraries or subprocesses that directly write to operating
system level output streams (FD1 and FD2).
.. include::