blob: e2604da83fb20e4f421e736ed1cbd18123a8bad5 [file] [log] [blame]
// Copyright (c) 2013 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
#include "base/process/kill.h"
#include <errno.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <sys/event.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include "base/files/file_util.h"
#include "base/files/scoped_file.h"
#include "base/logging.h"
#include "base/posix/eintr_wrapper.h"
#include "starboard/types.h"
namespace base {
namespace {
const int kWaitBeforeKillSeconds = 2;
// Reap |child| process. This call blocks until completion.
void BlockingReap(pid_t child) {
const pid_t result = HANDLE_EINTR(waitpid(child, NULL, 0));
if (result == -1) {
DPLOG(ERROR) << "waitpid(" << child << ", NULL, 0)";
// Waits for |timeout| seconds for the given |child| to exit and reap it. If
// the child doesn't exit within the time specified, kills it.
// This function takes two approaches: first, it tries to use kqueue to
// observe when the process exits. kevent can monitor a kqueue with a
// timeout, so this method is preferred to wait for a specified period of
// time. Once the kqueue indicates the process has exited, waitpid will reap
// the exited child. If the kqueue doesn't provide an exit event notification,
// before the timeout expires, or if the kqueue fails or misbehaves, the
// process will be mercilessly killed and reaped.
// A child process passed to this function may be in one of several states:
// running, terminated and not yet reaped, and (apparently, and unfortunately)
// terminated and already reaped. Normally, a process will at least have been
// asked to exit before this function is called, but this is not required.
// If a process is terminating and unreaped, there may be a window between the
// time that kqueue will no longer recognize it and when it becomes an actual
// zombie that a non-blocking (WNOHANG) waitpid can reap. This condition is
// detected when kqueue indicates that the process is not running and a
// non-blocking waitpid fails to reap the process but indicates that it is
// still running. In this event, a blocking attempt to reap the process
// collects the known-dying child, preventing zombies from congregating.
// In the event that the kqueue misbehaves entirely, as it might under a
// EMFILE condition ("too many open files", or out of file descriptors), this
// function will forcibly kill and reap the child without delay. This
// eliminates another potential zombie vector. (If you're out of file
// descriptors, you're probably deep into something else, but that doesn't
// mean that zombies be allowed to kick you while you're down.)
// The fact that this function seemingly can be called to wait on a child
// that's not only already terminated but already reaped is a bit of a
// problem: a reaped child's pid can be reclaimed and may refer to a distinct
// process in that case. The fact that this function can seemingly be called
// to wait on a process that's not even a child is also a problem: kqueue will
// work in that case, but waitpid won't, and killing a non-child might not be
// the best approach.
void WaitForChildToDie(pid_t child, int timeout) {
DCHECK_GT(child, 0);
DCHECK_GT(timeout, 0);
// |child| has been reaped. Specifically, even if a kqueue, kevent, or other
// call fails, this function should fall back to the last resort of trying
// to kill and reap the process. Not observing this rule will resurrect
// zombies.
int result;
ScopedFD kq(HANDLE_EINTR(kqueue()));
if (!kq.is_valid()) {
DPLOG(ERROR) << "kqueue()";
} else {
struct kevent change = {0};
EV_SET(&change, child, EVFILT_PROC, EV_ADD, NOTE_EXIT, 0, NULL);
result = HANDLE_EINTR(kevent(kq.get(), &change, 1, NULL, 0, NULL));
if (result == -1) {
if (errno != ESRCH) {
DPLOG(ERROR) << "kevent (setup " << child << ")";
} else {
// At this point, one of the following has occurred:
// 1. The process has died but has not yet been reaped.
// 2. The process has died and has already been reaped.
// 3. The process is in the process of dying. It's no longer
// kqueueable, but it may not be waitable yet either. Mark calls
// this case the "zombie death race".
result = HANDLE_EINTR(waitpid(child, NULL, WNOHANG));
if (result != 0) {
// A positive result indicates case 1. waitpid succeeded and reaped
// the child. A result of -1 indicates case 2. The child has already
// been reaped. In both of these cases, no further action is
// necessary.
// |result| is 0, indicating case 3. The process will be waitable in
// short order. Fall back out of the kqueue code to kill it (for good
// measure) and reap it.
} else {
// Keep track of the elapsed time to be able to restart kevent if it's
// interrupted.
TimeDelta remaining_delta = TimeDelta::FromSeconds(timeout);
TimeTicks deadline = TimeTicks::Now() + remaining_delta;
result = -1;
struct kevent event = {0};
while (remaining_delta.InMilliseconds() > 0) {
const struct timespec remaining_timespec = remaining_delta.ToTimeSpec();
result = kevent(kq.get(), NULL, 0, &event, 1, &remaining_timespec);
if (result == -1 && errno == EINTR) {
remaining_delta = deadline - TimeTicks::Now();
result = 0;
} else {
if (result == -1) {
DPLOG(ERROR) << "kevent (wait " << child << ")";
} else if (result > 1) {
DLOG(ERROR) << "kevent (wait " << child << "): unexpected result "
<< result;
} else if (result == 1) {
if ((event.fflags & NOTE_EXIT) &&
(event.ident == static_cast<uintptr_t>(child))) {
// The process is dead or dying. This won't block for long, if at
// all.
} else {
DLOG(ERROR) << "kevent (wait " << child
<< "): unexpected event: fflags=" << event.fflags
<< ", ident=" << event.ident;
// The child is still alive, or is very freshly dead. Be sure by sending it
// a signal. This is safe even if it's freshly dead, because it will be a
// zombie (or on the way to zombiedom) and kill will return 0 even if the
// signal is not delivered to a live process.
result = kill(child, SIGKILL);
if (result == -1) {
DPLOG(ERROR) << "kill(" << child << ", SIGKILL)";
} else {
// The child is definitely on the way out now. BlockingReap won't need to
// wait for long, if at all.
} // namespace
void EnsureProcessTerminated(Process process) {
WaitForChildToDie(process.Pid(), kWaitBeforeKillSeconds);
} // namespace base