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// Copyright 2013 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
// This file contains functions for launching subprocesses.
#if !defined(STARBOARD)
#include <string>
#include <utility>
#include <vector>
#include "base/base_export.h"
#include "base/environment.h"
#include "base/macros.h"
#include "base/process/process.h"
#include "base/process/process_handle.h"
#include "base/strings/string_piece.h"
#include "build/build_config.h"
#if defined(OS_WIN)
#include <windows.h>
#elif defined(OS_FUCHSIA)
#include <lib/fdio/spawn.h>
#include <zircon/types.h>
#if defined(OS_POSIX) || defined(OS_FUCHSIA)
#include "base/posix/file_descriptor_shuffle.h"
#include "starboard/types.h"
namespace base {
class CommandLine;
#if defined(OS_WIN)
typedef std::vector<HANDLE> HandlesToInheritVector;
#elif defined(OS_FUCHSIA)
struct PathToTransfer {
base::FilePath path;
zx_handle_t handle;
struct HandleToTransfer {
uint32_t id;
zx_handle_t handle;
typedef std::vector<HandleToTransfer> HandlesToTransferVector;
typedef std::vector<std::pair<int, int>> FileHandleMappingVector;
#elif defined(OS_POSIX)
typedef std::vector<std::pair<int, int>> FileHandleMappingVector;
#endif // defined(OS_WIN)
// Options for launching a subprocess that are passed to LaunchProcess().
// The default constructor constructs the object with default options.
struct BASE_EXPORT LaunchOptions {
#if defined(OS_POSIX) || defined(OS_FUCHSIA)
// Delegate to be run in between fork and exec in the subprocess (see
// pre_exec_delegate below)
class BASE_EXPORT PreExecDelegate {
PreExecDelegate() = default;
virtual ~PreExecDelegate() = default;
// Since this is to be run between fork and exec, and fork may have happened
// while multiple threads were running, this function needs to be async
// safe.
virtual void RunAsyncSafe() = 0;
#endif // defined(OS_POSIX)
LaunchOptions(const LaunchOptions&);
// If true, wait for the process to complete.
bool wait = false;
// If not empty, change to this directory before executing the new process.
base::FilePath current_directory;
#if defined(OS_WIN)
bool start_hidden = false;
// Windows can inherit handles when it launches child processes.
// See
// for a good overview of Windows handle inheritance.
// Implementation note: it might be nice to implement in terms of
// base::Optional<>, but then the natural default state (vector not present)
// would be "all inheritable handles" while we want "no inheritance."
enum class Inherit {
// Only those handles in |handles_to_inherit| vector are inherited. If the
// vector is empty, no handles are inherited. The handles in the vector must
// all be inheritable.
// All handles in the current process which are inheritable are inherited.
// In production code this flag should be used only when running
// short-lived, trusted binaries, because open handles from other libraries
// and subsystems will leak to the child process, causing errors such as
// open socket hangs. There are also race conditions that can cause handle
// over-sharing.
// |handles_to_inherit| must be null.
// DEPRECATED. THIS SHOULD NOT BE USED. Explicitly map all handles that
// need to be shared in new code.
// TODO(brettw) bug 748258: remove this.
Inherit inherit_mode = Inherit::kSpecific;
HandlesToInheritVector handles_to_inherit;
// If non-null, runs as if the user represented by the token had launched it.
// Whether the application is visible on the interactive desktop depends on
// the token belonging to an interactive logon session.
// To avoid hard to diagnose problems, when specified this loads the
// environment variables associated with the user and if this operation fails
// the entire call fails as well.
UserTokenHandle as_user = nullptr;
// If true, use an empty string for the desktop name.
bool empty_desktop_name = false;
// If non-null, launches the application in that job object. The process will
// be terminated immediately and LaunchProcess() will fail if assignment to
// the job object fails.
HANDLE job_handle = nullptr;
// Handles for the redirection of stdin, stdout and stderr. The caller should
// either set all three of them or none (i.e. there is no way to redirect
// stderr without redirecting stdin).
// The handles must be inheritable. Pseudo handles are used when stdout and
// stderr redirect to the console. In that case, GetFileType() will return
// FILE_TYPE_CHAR and they're automatically inherited by child processes. See
// Otherwise, the caller must ensure that the |inherit_mode| and/or
// |handles_to_inherit| set so that the handles are inherited.
HANDLE stdin_handle = nullptr;
HANDLE stdout_handle = nullptr;
HANDLE stderr_handle = nullptr;
// If set to true, ensures that the child process is launched with the
// CREATE_BREAKAWAY_FROM_JOB flag which allows it to breakout of the parent
// job if any.
bool force_breakaway_from_job_ = false;
// If set to true, permission to bring windows to the foreground is passed to
// the launched process if the current process has such permission.
bool grant_foreground_privilege = false;
#elif defined(OS_POSIX) || defined(OS_FUCHSIA)
// Set/unset environment variables. These are applied on top of the parent
// process environment. Empty (the default) means to inherit the same
// environment. See AlterEnvironment().
EnvironmentMap environ;
// Clear the environment for the new process before processing changes from
// |environ|.
bool clear_environ = false;
// Remap file descriptors according to the mapping of src_fd->dest_fd to
// propagate FDs into the child process.
FileHandleMappingVector fds_to_remap;
#endif // defined(OS_WIN)
#if defined(OS_LINUX)
// If non-zero, start the process using clone(), using flags as provided.
// Unlike in clone, clone_flags may not contain a custom termination signal
// that is sent to the parent when the child dies. The termination signal will
// always be set to SIGCHLD.
int clone_flags = 0;
// By default, child processes will have the PR_SET_NO_NEW_PRIVS bit set. If
// true, then this bit will not be set in the new child process.
bool allow_new_privs = false;
// Sets parent process death signal to SIGKILL.
bool kill_on_parent_death = false;
#endif // defined(OS_LINUX)
#if defined(OS_FUCHSIA)
// If valid, launches the application in that job object.
zx_handle_t job_handle = ZX_HANDLE_INVALID;
// Specifies additional handles to transfer (not duplicate) to the child
// process. Each entry is an <id,handle> pair, with an |id| created using the
// PA_HND() macro. The child retrieves the handle
// |zx_take_startup_handle(id)|. The supplied handles are consumed by
// LaunchProcess() even on failure.
HandlesToTransferVector handles_to_transfer;
// Specifies which basic capabilities to grant to the child process.
// By default the child process will receive the caller's complete namespace,
// access to the current base::fuchsia::DefaultJob(), handles for stdio and
// access to the dynamic library loader.
// Note that the child is always provided access to the loader service.
// Specifies paths to clone from the calling process' namespace into that of
// the child process. If |paths_to_clone| is empty then the process will
// receive either a full copy of the parent's namespace, or an empty one,
// depending on whether FDIO_SPAWN_CLONE_NAMESPACE is set.
std::vector<FilePath> paths_to_clone;
// Specifies handles which will be installed as files or directories in the
// child process' namespace. Paths installed by |paths_to_clone| will be
// overridden by these entries.
std::vector<PathToTransfer> paths_to_transfer;
#endif // defined(OS_FUCHSIA)
#if defined(OS_POSIX)
// If not empty, launch the specified executable instead of
// cmdline.GetProgram(). This is useful when it is necessary to pass a custom
// argv[0].
base::FilePath real_path;
// If non-null, a delegate to be run immediately prior to executing the new
// program in the child process.
// WARNING: If LaunchProcess is called in the presence of multiple threads,
// code running in this delegate essentially needs to be async-signal safe
// (see man 7 signal for a list of allowed functions).
PreExecDelegate* pre_exec_delegate = nullptr;
// Each element is an RLIMIT_* constant that should be raised to its
// rlim_max. This pointer is owned by the caller and must live through
// the call to LaunchProcess().
const std::vector<int>* maximize_rlimits = nullptr;
// If true, start the process in a new process group, instead of
// inheriting the parent's process group. The pgid of the child process
// will be the same as its pid.
bool new_process_group = false;
#endif // defined(OS_POSIX)
#if defined(OS_CHROMEOS)
// If non-negative, the specified file descriptor will be set as the launched
// process' controlling terminal.
int ctrl_terminal_fd = -1;
#endif // defined(OS_CHROMEOS)
// Launch a process via the command line |cmdline|.
// See the documentation of LaunchOptions for details on |options|.
// Returns a valid Process upon success.
// Unix-specific notes:
// - All file descriptors open in the parent process will be closed in the
// child process except for any preserved by options::fds_to_remap, and
// stdin, stdout, and stderr. If not remapped by options::fds_to_remap,
// stdin is reopened as /dev/null, and the child is allowed to inherit its
// parent's stdout and stderr.
// - If the first argument on the command line does not contain a slash,
// PATH will be searched. (See man execvp.)
BASE_EXPORT Process LaunchProcess(const CommandLine& cmdline,
const LaunchOptions& options);
#if defined(OS_WIN)
// Windows-specific LaunchProcess that takes the command line as a
// string. Useful for situations where you need to control the
// command line arguments directly, but prefer the CommandLine version
// if launching Chrome itself.
// The first command line argument should be the path to the process,
// and don't forget to quote it.
// Example (including literal quotes)
// cmdline = "c:\windows\explorer.exe" -foo "c:\bar\"
BASE_EXPORT Process LaunchProcess(const string16& cmdline,
const LaunchOptions& options);
// Launches a process with elevated privileges. This does not behave exactly
// like LaunchProcess as it uses ShellExecuteEx instead of CreateProcess to
// create the process. This means the process will have elevated privileges
// and thus some common operations like OpenProcess will fail. Currently the
// only supported LaunchOptions are |start_hidden| and |wait|.
BASE_EXPORT Process LaunchElevatedProcess(const CommandLine& cmdline,
const LaunchOptions& options);
#elif defined(OS_POSIX) || defined(OS_FUCHSIA)
// A POSIX-specific version of LaunchProcess that takes an argv array
// instead of a CommandLine. Useful for situations where you need to
// control the command line arguments directly, but prefer the
// CommandLine version if launching Chrome itself.
BASE_EXPORT Process LaunchProcess(const std::vector<std::string>& argv,
const LaunchOptions& options);
// Close all file descriptors, except those which are a destination in the
// given multimap. Only call this function in a child process where you know
// that there aren't any other threads.
BASE_EXPORT void CloseSuperfluousFds(const InjectiveMultimap& saved_map);
#endif // defined(OS_WIN)
#if defined(OS_WIN)
// BasicLimitInformation.LimitFlags to |limit_flags|.
BASE_EXPORT bool SetJobObjectLimitFlags(HANDLE job_object, DWORD limit_flags);
// Output multi-process printf, cout, cerr, etc to the cmd.exe console that ran
// chrome. This is not thread-safe: only call from main thread.
BASE_EXPORT void RouteStdioToConsole(bool create_console_if_not_found);
#endif // defined(OS_WIN)
// Executes the application specified by |cl| and wait for it to exit. Stores
// the output (stdout) in |output|. Redirects stderr to /dev/null. Returns true
// on success (application launched and exited cleanly, with exit code
// indicating success).
BASE_EXPORT bool GetAppOutput(const CommandLine& cl, std::string* output);
// Like GetAppOutput, but also includes stderr.
BASE_EXPORT bool GetAppOutputAndError(const CommandLine& cl,
std::string* output);
// A version of |GetAppOutput()| which also returns the exit code of the
// executed command. Returns true if the application runs and exits cleanly. If
// this is the case the exit code of the application is available in
// |*exit_code|.
BASE_EXPORT bool GetAppOutputWithExitCode(const CommandLine& cl,
std::string* output, int* exit_code);
#if defined(OS_WIN)
// A Windows-specific version of GetAppOutput that takes a command line string
// instead of a CommandLine object. Useful for situations where you need to
// control the command line arguments directly.
BASE_EXPORT bool GetAppOutput(const StringPiece16& cl, std::string* output);
#elif defined(OS_POSIX) || defined(OS_FUCHSIA)
// A POSIX-specific version of GetAppOutput that takes an argv array
// instead of a CommandLine. Useful for situations where you need to
// control the command line arguments directly.
BASE_EXPORT bool GetAppOutput(const std::vector<std::string>& argv,
std::string* output);
// Like the above POSIX-specific version of GetAppOutput, but also includes
// stderr.
BASE_EXPORT bool GetAppOutputAndError(const std::vector<std::string>& argv,
std::string* output);
#endif // defined(OS_WIN)
// If supported on the platform, and the user has sufficent rights, increase
// the current process's scheduling priority to a high priority.
BASE_EXPORT void RaiseProcessToHighPriority();
#if defined(OS_MACOSX)
// An implementation of LaunchProcess() that uses posix_spawn() instead of
// fork()+exec(). This does not support the |pre_exec_delegate| and
// |current_directory| options.
Process LaunchProcessPosixSpawn(const std::vector<std::string>& argv,
const LaunchOptions& options);
// Restore the default exception handler, setting it to Apple Crash Reporter
// (ReportCrash). When forking and execing a new process, the child will
// inherit the parent's exception ports, which may be set to the Breakpad
// instance running inside the parent. The parent's Breakpad instance should
// not handle the child's exceptions. Calling RestoreDefaultExceptionHandler
// in the child after forking will restore the standard exception handler.
// See for more details.
void RestoreDefaultExceptionHandler();
#endif // defined(OS_MACOSX)
// Creates a LaunchOptions object suitable for launching processes in a test
// binary. This should not be called in production/released code.
BASE_EXPORT LaunchOptions LaunchOptionsForTest();
#if defined(OS_LINUX) || defined(OS_NACL_NONSFI)
// A wrapper for clone with fork-like behavior, meaning that it returns the
// child's pid in the parent and 0 in the child. |flags|, |ptid|, and |ctid| are
// as in the clone system call (the CLONE_VM flag is not supported).
// This function uses the libc clone wrapper (which updates libc's pid cache)
// internally, so callers may expect things like getpid() to work correctly
// after in both the child and parent.
// As with fork(), callers should be extremely careful when calling this while
// multiple threads are running, since at the time the fork happened, the
// threads could have been in any state (potentially holding locks, etc.).
// Callers should most likely call execve() in the child soon after calling
// this.
// It is unsafe to use any pthread APIs after ForkWithFlags().
// However, performing an exec() will lift this restriction.
BASE_EXPORT pid_t ForkWithFlags(unsigned long flags, pid_t* ptid, pid_t* ctid);
} // namespace base
#endif // !defined(STARBOARD)