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Basic test configuration
Command line options and configuration file settings
You can get help on command line options and values in INI-style
configurations files by using the general help option::
py.test -h # prints options _and_ config file settings
This will display command line and configuration file settings
which were registered by installed plugins.
.. _rootdir:
.. _inifiles:
initialization: determining rootdir and inifile
.. versionadded:: 2.7
pytest determines a "rootdir" for each test run which depends on
the command line arguments (specified test files, paths) and on
the existence of inifiles. The determined rootdir and ini-file are
printed as part of the pytest header. The rootdir is used for constructing
"nodeids" during collection and may also be used by plugins to store
project/testrun-specific information.
Here is the algorithm which finds the rootdir from ``args``:
- determine the common ancestor directory for the specified ``args``.
- look for ``pytest.ini``, ``tox.ini`` and ``setup.cfg`` files in the
ancestor directory and upwards. If one is matched, it becomes the
ini-file and its directory becomes the rootdir. An existing
``pytest.ini`` file will always be considered a match whereas
``tox.ini`` and ``setup.cfg`` will only match if they contain
a ``[pytest]`` section.
- if no ini-file was found, look for ```` upwards from
the common ancestor directory to determine the ``rootdir``.
- if no ini-file and no ```` was found, use the already
determined common ancestor as root directory. This allows to
work with pytest in structures that are not part of a package
and don't have any particular ini-file configuration.
Note that options from multiple ini-files candidates are never merged,
the first one wins (``pytest.ini`` always wins even if it does not
contain a ``[pytest]`` section).
The ``config`` object will subsequently carry these attributes:
- ``config.rootdir``: the determined root directory, guaranteed to exist.
- ``config.inifile``: the determined ini-file, may be ``None``.
The rootdir is used a reference directory for constructing test
addresses ("nodeids") and can be used also by plugins for storing
per-testrun information.
py.test path/to/testdir path/other/
will determine the common ancestor as ``path`` and then
check for ini-files as follows::
# first look for pytest.ini files
path/setup.cfg # must also contain [pytest] section to match
path/tox.ini # must also contain [pytest] section to match
... # all the way down to the root
# now look for
... # all the way down to the root
.. _`how to change command line options defaults`:
.. _`adding default options`:
How to change command line options defaults
It can be tedious to type the same series of command line options
every time you use ``pytest``. For example, if you always want to see
detailed info on skipped and xfailed tests, as well as have terser "dot"
progress output, you can write it into a configuration file:
.. code-block:: ini
# content of pytest.ini
# (or tox.ini or setup.cfg)
addopts = -rsxX -q
Alternatively, you can set a PYTEST_ADDOPTS environment variable to add command
line options while the environment is in use::
export PYTEST_ADDOPTS="-rsxX -q"
From now on, running ``pytest`` will add the specified options.
Builtin configuration file options
.. confval:: minversion
Specifies a minimal pytest version required for running tests.
minversion = 2.1 # will fail if we run with pytest-2.0
.. confval:: addopts
Add the specified ``OPTS`` to the set of command line arguments as if they
had been specified by the user. Example: if you have this ini file content:
.. code-block:: ini
addopts = --maxfail=2 -rf # exit after 2 failures, report fail info
issuing ``py.test`` actually means::
py.test --maxfail=2 -rf
Default is to add no options.
.. confval:: norecursedirs
Set the directory basename patterns to avoid when recursing
for test discovery. The individual (fnmatch-style) patterns are
applied to the basename of a directory to decide if to recurse into it.
Pattern matching characters::
* matches everything
? matches any single character
[seq] matches any character in seq
[!seq] matches any char not in seq
Default patterns are ``'.*', 'CVS', '_darcs', '{arch}', '*.egg'``.
Setting a ``norecursedirs`` replaces the default. Here is an example of
how to avoid certain directories:
.. code-block:: ini
# content of setup.cfg
norecursedirs = .svn _build tmp*
This would tell ``pytest`` to not look into typical subversion or
sphinx-build directories or into any ``tmp`` prefixed directory.
.. confval:: testpaths
.. versionadded:: 2.8
Sets list of directories that should be searched for tests when
no specific directories, files or test ids are given in the command line when
executing pytest from the :ref:`rootdir <rootdir>` directory.
Useful when all project tests are in a known location to speed up
test collection and to avoid picking up undesired tests by accident.
.. code-block:: ini
# content of pytest.ini
testpaths = testing doc
This tells pytest to only look for tests in ``testing`` and ``doc``
directories when executing from the root directory.
.. confval:: python_files
One or more Glob-style file patterns determining which python files
are considered as test modules.
.. confval:: python_classes
One or more name prefixes or glob-style patterns determining which classes
are considered for test collection. Here is an example of how to collect
tests from classes that end in ``Suite``:
.. code-block:: ini
# content of pytest.ini
python_classes = *Suite
Note that ``unittest.TestCase`` derived classes are always collected
regardless of this option, as ``unittest``'s own collection framework is used
to collect those tests.
.. confval:: python_functions
One or more name prefixes or glob-patterns determining which test functions
and methods are considered tests. Here is an example of how
to collect test functions and methods that end in ``_test``:
.. code-block:: ini
# content of pytest.ini
python_functions = *_test
Note that this has no effect on methods that live on a ``unittest
.TestCase`` derived class, as ``unittest``'s own collection framework is used
to collect those tests.
See :ref:`change naming conventions` for more detailed examples.
.. confval:: doctest_optionflags
One or more doctest flag names from the standard ``doctest`` module.
:doc:`See how py.test handles doctests <doctest>`.
.. confval:: confcutdir
Sets a directory where search upwards for ```` files stops.
By default, pytest will stop searching for ```` files upwards
from ``pytest.ini``/``tox.ini``/``setup.cfg`` of the project if any,
or up to the file-system root.